Ernst Teodorovich Krenkel
Ernst Krenkel ( 11 (24) December 1903 , Bialystok , Russian Empire - December 8, 1971 , Moscow, USSR ) - a famous Soviet Arctic explorer, professional radio operator , member of the first drifting station "North Pole" and other Arctic expeditions.
Hero of the Soviet Union , a prominent social activist , member of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR , member of the VKP(b)/Communist Party since 1938 (candidate - since 1934) . Amateur radio hams , the first chairman of the Central Radio Club (CRK) USSR , chairman of the Federation of radio USSR (1959-1971), amateur radio call sign - U3AA, UA3AA, RAEM. The first chairman of the All-Union Society of Philatelists (1966-1971).
Born in Bialystok (now Poland) , the son of a commercial school inspector . German by birth . In 1910 his family moved to Moscow. Attended a private school at the Swiss Reformed Church.
During the First World War and the Civil War was forced to leave school and go to the laborers (in mechanical workshop sharpening knives for mincing , putting up posters, rotten in suburban gardeners ). Wanted to become a movie star . In 1921 he graduated from the one-year course radiotelegraph . Worked on Lyuberetskaya receiving station .
January 12, 1930 set a world record radio range , to make a connection between the opposite areas of the globe : in the Arctic polar station bay Tikhaya on the island of Hooker (archipelago of Franz Josef Land ), he held on shortwave radio (HF) from the Antarctic base Little America Byrd's first expedition . Equipment used by him was homemade .
He worked as a radio operator at polar stations Matochkin (Novaya Zemlya , 1924-1925 , 1927-1928), bay Tikhaya (Franz Josef Land , 1929-1930), cape Olovyanny (Severnaya Zemlya , 1935-1936 ), the island Domashniy ( Severnaya Zemlya 1936).
Member of Arctic expeditions on the icebreaker " G. Sedov " (1929 ) , on the airship "Graf Zeppelin" (1931), the steamers "Siberians " (1932), "Chelyuskin" ( 1933-1934 ). After the death of "Chelyuskin" provide radio ice camp Schmidt with the mainland. Radio call sign of "Chelyuskina" RAEM was subsequently assigned to Krenkel as his personal amateur radio callsign. In 1935 he was appointed head of the polar station on cape Olovyanny Severnaya Zemlya (of four people).
E.T. Krenkel after returning from the station "North Pole" (1938) presents the prize - own personal radio - Leningrad Shortwave V.S. Saltykov , who was the first amateur radio operators established contact with the drifting ice floe .
On June 6, 1937 to March 15, 1938 was a radio operator first drifting station "North Pole" (callsign UPOL). For participation in the study of the Arctic Ocean , conducted during the drift on the ice , he (and his colleagues drift) received in 1938 the degree of Doctor of Geographical Sciences (without defending a thesis) and was elected an honorary member of the All-Union Geographical Society.
After drifting station "North Pole" worked as head of the office of polar stations and communication. During the Great Patriotic War was deputy chief and a member of the Glavsevmorput . Supervised the evacuation of families explorers from Moscow and Leningrad , and participated in the transfer of the Arctic Institute and other units of the Northern Sea Route from besieged Leningrad .
During the Main Directorate of the Northern Sea Route stay in the rear (Krasnoyarsk) , since October 1941 , continued to work as the deputy chief of the Glavsevmorput , supervised the work of all Soviet polar stations . It was administered and the establishment of reliable radio communication along the route " AlSib" according to which from October 1942 to October 1945 was distilled in Krasnoyarsk Native American aircraft supplied under Lend-Lease .
Returning to Moscow after the war , continued to work in the Glavsevmorput . In 1946 , when he was shot caused by the war ban on amateur radio, Krenkel first in USSR received a license for private radio station. From 1948 to 1951 E.T. Krenkel headed the Moscow Radio Factory "Wave" .
Since 1951, worked as head of the laboratory of automatic radio meteorological stations Hydrometeorological Research Institute of Instrument Main Administration of the Hydrometeorological Service of the USSR. Created automatic weather stations placed in remote areas , has significantly thicken weather observation network . In 1969 , after returning from the Antarctic voyage, was appointed director of the Institute.
On November 15, 1968 to March 15, 1969 Ernst was chief flight research vessel "Professor Zubov " from Leningrad to Antarctica . Ship delivered the participants of the 14th Soviet Antarctic expedition to the polar station "Mir" and " Bellingshausen " visor and wintering previous expedition . February 6, 1969 at the Antarctic King George Island (Waterloo ), where the station is located " Bellingshausen " met with Chilean President Eduardo Frei , who visited the box on the same island Chilean polar station . During the voyage, E. T. Krenkel aired on shortwave amateur bands under the callsign RAEM/mm (the last two letters indicate that the station is located on a ship at sea ) . On board Ernst began to work on his memoirs "RAEM - my calls". Shortly after the flight , this book began to be published in the journal "New World".
Died December 8, 1971 . Buried in Moscow at the Novodevichy Cemetery (7th section) . Monument at the grave symbolizes escaping from the North Pole radio callsign RAEM.